What happens to the information after it crosses the black hole event horizon?
There is speculation that this known and unexplained problem may be solved by the geometry of the wormholes, but not so easily.
In a new study, an international team of physicists has come up with a problem-solving method to better understand how a collapsing black hole can prevent violations of the fundamental laws of quantum physics.
Although the study is highly theoretical, it indicates that there are likely to be some things that are overlooked in the search for a solution to general relativity through quantum mechanics.
“We have discovered a new geometry of space-time with a wormhole-like structure that was hitherto unnoticed in conventional calculations. “The entropy calculated using the new geometry gives a completely different result,” said Canato Giotto, a physicist at Cornell University.
The black hole information paradox is one of the unexplained discrepancies between Einstein’s general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.
In general relativity, the black hole event horizon is the point of no return. Anything that crosses this critical point will inevitably be absorbed into the gravitational pit of a black hole; No velocity in the universe, including light in a vacuum, has the speed necessary to escape from it. It will be absorbed there, irreversibly.
In the 1970s, Stephen Hawking suggested that if we allowed quantum mechanics, black holes should be able to emit radiation.
In theory, this is done by interfering with the black hole’s similar properties to the surrounding particle wave, which produces a “heat” whose temperature increases as the size of the black hole decreases.
Gradually, this “heat” should reduce the black hole and eventually leave nothing of it.
“This is called evaporation due to the reduction of the black hole, due to a drop of evaporating water,” explains Joto.
Since this “light” does not resemble what entered the black hole from the beginning, it seems that everything that arrived in the black hole before evaporating should be gone forever. However, according to quantum mechanics, it is impossible for information in the universe to simply disappear. Many physicists have done some research into the possibility that information is encrypted in Hawking radiation.
Giotto and his team wanted to study this idea mathematically by calculating the entropy of Hawking radiation around a black hole. Entropy is a measure of disorder in a system and can be used to diagnose information loss in Hawking radiation.
According to a 1993 study by physicist Don Page, if the disorder reverses and the entropy drops to zero with the disappearance of the black hole, the paradox of missing information can be avoided. Unfortunately, there is nothing in quantum mechanics that would make this reversal possible.
Introduce a wormhole or at least a mathematical replica into one of the most highly specific models in the universe. It is a connection between two regions of a space-time curved plate, much like a bridge over a shoulder.
According to Giotto, thinking about this with a black hole allows us to calculate Hawking radiation entropy differently.
“The wormhole connects the inside of the black hole and the outer radiation, like a bridge,” Joto explains.
When the group performed the calculations using the wormhole model, the results obtained coincided with the Page entropy curvature. This suggests that information beyond the black hole event horizon may not be lost forever.
However, of course the questions still remain. As long as they are unanswered, the black hole information paradox will not be considered resolved.
“We still do not know the basic mechanism of how radiation is released. We need a theory of quantum gravity, “said Canato Giotto, a physicist at Cornell University.
The study was published in the Journal of High Energy Physics.
Prepared according to ScienceAlert.