What happens near the center of the black hole? The answer to this question seems to have been revealed through a theory of physics called “loop quantum gravity”. Using quantum mechanics, this theory attempts to extend gravitational physics beyond the boundaries of Einstein’s general theory of relativity.
The theory of loop quantum gravity, put forward at Penn State University, is today universally recognized as a new paradigm of modern physics. This theory tries to explain all the phenomena in the universe where the equations of the theory of relativity do not work.
The theory of loop quantum gravity has been successfully used to explain the quantum nature of large explosions. This time the researchers decided to explain the ongoing processes in the middle of the black hole.
“Relativity is the best theory for gravity today,” said Ivan Pu Ashtekar, a professor of physics and director of the Penn State University Institute for Gravity and Space. “For example, according to the theory of relativity, there are places in the universe where gravity is infinitely large and time and space simply end. We call such places “singularity”. However, even Einstein pointed out that the limit of the theory of relativity goes where quantum mechanics begins. ”
The gravity at the center of the black hole is so strong that, in general relativity, time and space are infinitely curved and shifted into many fine junctions where classical physics no longer exists. The second example is the singularity of the Big Bang. It is nonsense to ask what was before the Big Bang, for there is no time beyond this point. However, the introduction of elements of quantum mechanics into Einstein’s equations allowed researchers to look beyond these limits.
“The theory of loop quantum gravity is also a credit to Einstein, who determined that space-time geometry is not just a plane where certain cosmological phenomena occur, but is itself a physical element capable of curvature.” – notes Ashtekar. “Therefore, like physical data, it is made up of fundamental material units, just as matter is made up of atoms. These geometric units are known as “quantum excitation”, and they are one order of magnitude smaller than what is observed with today’s technology. Instead, we have quantum equations that help us predict the properties of these units. “A black hole is a place where we can put these theoretical assumptions into practice.”
According to the theory of relativity, the singularity of a black hole is called “Information paradox”, which means that there is no longer the data needed for physical calculations. However, corrections made by loop quantum gravity overcome even the strongest attraction of classical gravity, and physics “continues to exist.” Therefore, there is no loss of information in the center of the black hole.
It is interesting to note that away from the extreme conditions of singularity, the theories of general relativity and loop quantum gravity calculate physical phenomena in absolutely the same way.